top of page

Legal Aspects of Working with Robots

The usage of robots and autonomous devices in human environments has become increasingly common in recent years. From self-driving cars to industrial robots, these machines are transforming the way we live and work. However, as with any new technology, there are legal issues that need to be considered. One of the most important of these is the question of liability. In this blog post, we will examine the legal aspects of the usage of robots in human environments, with a particular focus on liability in the US and Europe.

Definition of Autonomous Devices Before delving into the legal aspects of autonomous devices in human environments, it's important to define what we mean by the term. Autonomous devices are machines that are capable of making decisions without human intervention. They use a combination of sensors, algorithms, and artificial intelligence to perceive their environment, interpret data, and take actions based on that data. Examples of autonomous devices include self-driving cars, drones, and industrial robots.


Legal Aspects in the US

In the US, there are a number of legal issues that arise when it comes to the liability of autonomous devices. One of the main issues is product liability. If an autonomous device malfunctions and causes harm to a person or property, the manufacturer of the device could be held liable for any damages that result. This is similar to the liability that would be imposed on a manufacturer of any other defective product. However, the unique nature of autonomous devices raises some additional questions. For example, who is responsible if an autonomous car crashes and causes injury or damage? Is it the manufacturer of the car, the software company that developed the self-driving system, or the person who was operating the car at the time of the crash? The answer to this question is still being debated in the legal community, but it's likely that all of these parties could be held liable to some extent. Another issue that arises in the US is the question of privacy. Autonomous devices are often equipped with cameras and sensors that can collect vast amounts of data about their surroundings. This data could potentially be used to invade the privacy of individuals. As a result, there are strict laws in place to regulate the collection and use of this data. For example, the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) requires companies to disclose what data they are collecting and how it will be used.


Legal Aspects in Europe

In Europe, the legal aspects of autonomous devices are somewhat different from those in the US. One of the main differences is the approach to product liability. In the EU, manufacturers are strictly liable for any damage caused by defective products, regardless of whether they were negligent or not. This means that if an autonomous device causes harm, the manufacturer is automatically liable, unless they can prove that the harm was caused by something outside of their control. Another important aspect of the legal framework in Europe is the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). This law regulates the collection, use, and storage of personal data in the EU. Like the CCPA in the US, the GDPR requires companies to obtain consent before collecting personal data, and to provide individuals with the ability to access and delete their data. One of the most interesting legal aspects of autonomous devices in Europe is the question of personhood. In 2017, the European Parliament adopted a resolution calling for the creation of a legal framework for the development and use of autonomous robots. This resolution included a provision calling for the creation of a new category of "electronic persons" to be used to assign liability for the actions of autonomous robots. While this idea is still in its infancy, it could have significant implications for the legal status of robots and the companies that manufacture them.


Conclusion The usage of autonomous devices in human environments is an exciting and rapidly evolving field, but it is not without its legal challenges. In both the US and Europe, the question of liability is a particularly complex issue that requires careful consideration. As the technology continues to evolve, it is likely that we will see new legal challenges arise, and it will be important for lawmakers to stay ahead of these challenges in order to ensure that the benefits of autonomous devices are enjoyed in a safe and responsible manner. Overall, it is clear that the legal aspects of the usage of robots in human environments are complex and multifaceted. While there are certainly challenges to be addressed, there is also enormous potential for these devices to improve our lives in countless ways. By carefully balancing innovation with responsibility, we can ensure that the legal framework surrounding these devices evolves in a way that maximizes their potential while also protecting the rights and safety of individuals.


We had a pleasure of hosting Dr. Rob van den Hoven van Genderen on our Podcast, and we discussed the legal implications of working with robots. If you want to hear more on this issue please visit our pocast here:



bottom of page